Hemiphileurus illatus (LeConte, 1854) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Hemiphileurus illatus (LeConte, 1854)
Phileurus illatus LeConte, 1854 (original combination).
Phileurus vitulus LeConte, 1863 (synonym).
Phileurus Phoenicus Casey, 1915 (synonym).
Phileurus puncticollis Casey, 1915 (synonym).
Hemiphileurus illatus mexicanus Endrödi, 1978 (synonym).

Hemiphileurus_illatus_male_1

Description: 15.9-25.0mm in size, occurring in western US states of southern California to western Texas and western Mexico.

*Pictured specimen is reared male.

Related Species:
1. Phileurus valgus (Olivier, 1789)
2. Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)
3. Hemiphileurus illatus (LeConte, 1854)
4. Eophileurus chinensis (Faldermann, 1835)

References:
Ratcliffe, B. C. and R. D. Cave. 2017. The dynastine scarab beetles of the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 30: 1-298.

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Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)
Scarabaeus truncatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1806 (original combination).
Phileurus recurvatus Casey, 1915 (synonym).

Phileurus_truncatus_male

Collection Sites: Texas: Sabine County: Hemphill

Descriptions: Adults attracted to light. Size is around 28.5-39.3 (Ratcliffe and Cave 2017).

Related Species:
1. Phileurus valgus (Olivier, 1789)
2. Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)
3. Hemiphileurus illatus (LeConte, 1854)
4. Eophileurus chinensis (Faldermann, 1835)

References:
Ratcliffe, B. C. and R. D. Cave. 2017. The dynastine scarab beetles of the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 30: 1-298.

Strategus antaeus (Drury) – immature biology

I haven’t had a successful experience with Strategus antaeus (Drury) in captivity. I found couple of males and females, I set them up in a plastic container with substrate (depth of over 6 inches), but no eggs ever found. This year, I looked up a little (a little, because there is no info available anywhere) while collecting and studied the habitat where I collected the series of specimens. Then on one day, I read somewhere that S. antaeus requires sandy soil mixtures with plant materials, like grass roots or dead grass, and such, which gave me an interesting impression because there are some Ruteline and Cetoniine species requiring the same environment.

Set up on 26 May 2018

I found two males and one female on May 12th, 2018 at Natchitoches Parish of Louisiana. My set up was similar to that I explained above the images, except no grass. Having grass sounds too messy, and I don’t like it. Instead, I added some peat moss (moss that you overlay on top of a garden or a flower pot). Moss soaked in water overnight has been squeezed before placing over the soil mixture of 2 : 1 : 1 of sand : substrate :  organic potting mix (here, I used Miracle-Gro Organic Potting Mix). I didn’t mix the moss with soil on purpose, hoping to see a female grab a piece and burrow. Such plant materials are used by females to protect eggs while laying in underground.

I found two eggs and three L1 larvae today, on August 7th, 2018 (after over 10 weeks). I believe these are quite fresh ones. I don’t know what made the female to decide to just start laying eggs, and not in couple of months ago.

DSC05598

Since it was rather a rare opportunity to find larvae and eggs of Strategus antaeus (Drury), I took some time observing them. An interesting factor of larvae is that they “crawl,” unlike many other dynastine scarab beetles. This kind of crawling can be observed from other scarab groups like Rutelinae or Melolonthinae. If the larvae crawl with its back, then usually, Cetoniinae. I haven’t seen any Dynastine larvae crawl like in the picture, and two dark colored larvae were doing the same thing. White one seems to be a very fresh one, not yet even started to feed. Two eggs found had a slight trace of larvae inside, if you take a closer look (hatched on around August 9-11th). The Size of eggs was quite surprising as they were larger than eggs of Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus) (in naked eyes), which is larger sister species, also occurring in Louisiana. A length of an egg (in the picture below, with scale bar of 2mm) is 4.66 mm long (major axis) and 3.63 mm wide (minor axis).

Strategus splendens (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Strategus splendens (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)
Scarabaeus splendens Palisot de Beauvois 1809 (original combination).
Scarabaeus boscii Palisot de Beauvois 1809 (synonym).
Anastrategus cognatus Casey 1915 (synonym).
Anastrategus carolinensis Casey 1915 (synonym).

web_Ssplendens_m

 

Description: Strategus splendens (Palisot de Beauvois) is known to occur from southeastern USA (Ratcliffe 1976; Ratcliffe and Cave 2017). Kim and Brou (2018) reported S. splendens for the first time based on a single record, a male from the collection of Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, dated 10 June 1958, Baton Rouge, LA. The pictured specimen is from East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, deposited in Louisiana State Arthropod Museum (Baton Rouge, LA, USA).

Related Species:
1. Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus, 1758)
2. Strategus antaeus (Drury, 1773)
3. Strategus splendens (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)

References:

Kim, J. and V. A. Brou, Jr. 2018. The Genus Strategus Kirby (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Louisiana. The Southern Lepidopterists’ News, 40, 100-105.

Ratcliffe, B. C. 1976. A revision of the genus Strategus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 10: 93-204.

Ratcliffe, B. C. and R. D. Cave. 2017. The dynastine scarab beetles of the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 30: 1-298.

Strategus antaeus (Drury, 1773) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Strategus antaeus (Drury, 1773)
Scarabaeus antaeus Drury 1773 (original combination).
Scarabaeus maimon Fabricius 1775 (synonym).
Strategus divergens Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus atrolucens Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus pinorum Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus septentrionis Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus sinuatus Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus semistriatus Casey 1915 (synonym).
Strategus antaeus houstonensis Knaus 1925 (synonym).

web_Santaeus_mf

 

Description: Strategus antaeus (Drury) is known to occur in eastern USA west to Oklahoma and Texas (Ratcliffe 1976) with first report by Ratcliffe and Cave (2017) from Louisiana based upon a series of specimens previously collected in Natchitoches Parish by Junsuk Kim (Kim and Brou 2018). Kim and Brou (2018) stated S. antaeus adults in Louisiana actively flies from May to September with peak adult flight ranges from the last week of May to the first week of June. The pictured specimens are from Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana.

Related Species:
1. Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus, 1758)
2. Strategus antaeus (Drury, 1773)
3. Strategus splendens (Palisot de Beauvois, 1809)

References:

Kim, J. and V. A. Brou, Jr. 2018. The Genus Strategus Kirby (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Louisiana. The Southern Lepidopterists’ News, 40, 100-105.

Ratcliffe, B. C. 1976. A revision of the genus Strategus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 10: 93-204.

Ratcliffe, B. C. and R. D. Cave. 2017. The dynastine scarab beetles of the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 30: 1-298.