Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771)
Scarabaeus claviger Linnaeus, 1771 (original combination).
Scarabaeus hastatus Fabricius, 1781 (synonym).
Scarabaeus subgrundator Voet, 1806 (synonym).
Golofa puncticollis Thomson, 1860 (synonym).


Description: Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus) is a type species of genus Golofa, occurring in wide ranges including French Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. G. clavigera clavigera is very common among the Golofa species. Its biology has not yet been studied. Identification information can be found in Cespesdes and Ratcliffe (2010), Endrödi (1985), and Hwang (2011).


Cespesdes, A. A. and B. C. Ratcliffe. 2010. Golofa clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) in Bolivia: a new country record (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Ecologia en Bolivia 45(1): 73–76.

Endrödi, S. 1977. Monographie der Dynastinae (Coleoptera) 6. Tribus: Dynastini. II. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 23: 37-86.

Hwang, S.-M.-R. 2011. The Dynastini of the World (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Nature and Ecology (Academic Series), Volume 4. Seoul, South Korea. 368 pp.

Kim, J. 2016. Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles-Scarabaeidae-Dynastinae-Dynastini-Golofa. (URL: http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Scarabaeoidea/Scarabaeidae/Dynastinae/Dynastinae-Tribes/Dynastini/Golofa/Golofa.html). In: B.C. Ratcliffe and M.L. Jameson (eds.), Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles (URL: http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Guide-introduction/Guideintro.html).


Allometry – What matters the larval growth?


I’m rearing couple of dynastine scarab beetles, and I checked up some larvae the other day. I found some interesting specimens. A group of larvae which hatched a lot earlier are still so tiny (still L1-L2), while the other group of larvae hatched later are fully grown up to L3 instars.

I had this experience of larvae not growing up enough in given time when I reared Dynastes grantii Horn. This time, both Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus) and Dynastes tityus (Linnaeus) shown the results. In this post, I’ll be posting two pictures of two groups of S. aloeus (Linnaeus) only.

When I first reared D. grantii larvae, I fed horribly fermented substrate and they took such a long time to grow up. With several months, they were still L1-L2. At the time, since I knew I fed them bad food, I thought that was the cause. Then later years, I tried to rear them again and fed really good substrate with well fermented oaks. Larvae grew up so fast and reached L3 instar within a month. So obviously, at the time, I thought larval growth surely matters with the food quality.

When I faced trouble again the other day with S. aloeus, I actually asked couple of my friends, and found the right answer to this issue. Larval growth usually matters with an activity space. With enough space, each larva will eat up the food and moves around.


Above is a picture of a group hatched a lot earlier than below. They are still all in L1-L2 instar. They were picked up as eggs on October 11th, 2016, and hatched as follows. Eggs were kept in 16.6 fl oz. (490.9cc) container since then and only one or two larvae survived.


Five larvae here are kept in 230.4 fl oz (6813.74cc). These larvae were laid as eggs after Oct. 11th, 2016, as female was still alive for couple of weeks. The container they were kept is the container for adult beetles to lay eggs. There is a significant difference in larval growth in size of container they were kept, or ‘the activity space.’

Killing jar, killing agent

6 February 2017

A killing jar is a container that has chemical substance (or killing agent) that used to kill collected insects in the field to prevent any further damage to specimens. As I don’t collect any soft-bodied insects, I don’t ever use killing jar up until now. I usually kill my collections by dumping them into the alcohol (or sometimes injecting small amount of alcohol into the abdomen) or freeze them after I get back home. These days, I started to collect some Lepidopterans so I started to feel the needs of killing jars.

There are many chemical used in killing jars, like Sodium Cyanide, Ethyl Acetate, Ammonium Carbonate, etc. I have an experience of using Sodium Cyanide in my collection trip with Vernon A. Brou Jr. of Louisiana Lepidoptera Survey (Abita Springs, Louisiana). It is most amazing killing agent. It can kill moths in couple of seconds. However, it is not something you can get in nowadays. It is banned to be sold as it is very, very toxic substance. As I’m not affiliated to any institution, I doubt I can get a hand on it at all.

Ethyl acetate? that’s something I can easily obtain, but it is horrible. It takes forever to kill specimens. I have an experience of using it in my freshmen year in college, at class. I only used it once and left it on my desk until the last day of semester.

I know couple of colleagues who use Ammonium, but they weren’t aware of what kind of Ammonium they are using. So I had to go look through and found Dr. Todd M. Gilligan at the Colorado State University and USDA. According to him, the Ammonium Carbonate is what he use all the time for moth collecting. Ammonium Carbonate is very good one for moth collecting as it does not dehydrate specimens even when stored for long time. This is good point as small sized Leps are difficult to be spreaded once dehydrated (even if rehydrated). Ethyl Acetate does dehydrate specimens when stored for long time, and Sodium Cyanide sometimes, depending on species, can discolor the specimens. Dr. Todd A. Gilligan suggested me to use an old sock to store the Ammonium Carbonate as it can damage the plaster (usually used in killing jar).

It was rather a long intro, but…


I made a purchase of Sodium Carbonate, from The Science Shop online as they were selling 500g in fair price compare to the others, and they even ship items for free with USPS 3-Days Priority. EXCEPT… they sent this toxic chemical substance in non-airtight container! I better find one that can SAFELY store this…

It is amazing! I tried right away on night. Moth got paralyzed after about 10 seconds. I think it takes some time to completely kill specimens, but paralyzing is definitely enough to prevent any damage from their own movements. As a sock didn’t stayed tight on bottom of killing jar, I better update things for easy works. Following picture is moths paralyzed/killed by the Ammonium Carbonate, and they are pretty clean and neat condition.


Megasoma punctulatum Cartwright – four larvae

9 December 2016

Couple of months ago, I purchased few larvae of Megasoma punctulatum Cartwright with a friend. Then I received my portion of larvae, 4 of them, today on December 9th. M. punctulatum Cartwright is one of three Megasoma species, occurring in North America: M. punctulatum Cartwright, M. sleeperi Hardy, M. vogti Cartwright. M. punctulatum might be the most common one among those three, but not many numbers are being collected. So, I suppose I should say, ‘least common species.’ Hwang (2011) stated the species size can reach up to 40mm, but generally it seems it is in range of 20-30mm. They are known to active between July to August in Southern Arizona.


All are L2 larvae, and weigh only about 2-3 grams.

Hwang, S. -M. -R. 2011. The Dynastini of the World (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Nature & Ecology (Academic Series), Volume 4. Seoul, South Korea. 368 pp.

Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte, 1856) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte, 1856)
Ligyrus rugiceps LeConte, 1856 (original combination).
Euetheola humilis Burmeister, 1847 (synonym).

Euetheola rugiceps.jpg

Comment: E. rugiceps (LeConte) is known to occur southeastern US and keep spreading upward to midwest states. I personally collected couple of specimens in southern Nebraska, 2014. Very common in down south. They are mostly active in between May-June to August. I have experience of collecting more than a hundred specimen in a single night with a small battery-operated blacklight within an hour. This species do not show a sexual dimorphism, therefore, genitalia must be extracted to determine the sex. In my personal collections from Shreveport, LA and Alexandria, LA, there were whole lot more females than males collected.

*Image of aedeagus will be updated in near future.

Display Collections



Although I usually store insect collections in a unit tray system, I sometimes make butterfly frames or dioramas as gifts to my friends and neighbors. I think I started to doing that since my high school years to my favorite teachers as a gift of gratitude.

Other than that, without unit trays, I have been working on one big display collection, just in case I’d ever have a chance to show my collections to the public. (I never really encountered such chances since my high school years though).

Full shot


I’m not working on this in hurry. It is just for fun.

At the moment, I just grouped all in a drawer, but I’m thinking about expanding this to two or three drawers with just beetles and maybe butterflies and others.

Mushi-Sha: Be-Kuwa #61

02 November 2016

If you are interested in Japanese beetle rearing trends, you might have heard of this magazine named, Be-Kuwa published by Mushi-Sha, the famous beetle shop located in Japan.

‘Be’ of Be-Kuwa stands for the two first alphabet of English word ‘Beetle,’ and then ‘Kuwa’ stands for the first two letters of kuwagata (くわがた). Kuwagata is Japanese word meaning stag beetles.

According to the Mr. Yasuhiko Kasahara (one of the editors for Be-Kuwa), Be-Kuwa has its inception back in January 2000. It started as a special issue dispatched from its sister magazine named 月刊むし ( Gekkan-Mushi, meaning a Bug Monthly).  Mushi-sha, the publisher, saw the opportunity to publish the new magazine exclusively for beetle breeding/rearing enthusiasts soon after the Japanese government permitted the importation of big and well-known alive beetles from the overseas in 1999. It is quarterly issued in January, April, July, and October, named as winter, spring, summer, and autumn issue respectively. It is 128 paged magazine typically begins the page with a feature photo guide such as Hercules Beetles with descriptions of its subspecies, biology, taxonomy, etc. Following that, most of the pages discusses the beetle breeding/rearing or collection reports from its seasoned readers. Then breeding/rearing tips from amateur and experts are followed. Finally the magazine concludes with the readers’ voices corner. In every winter issues, pages are filled with recognition of new beetle size records and its rearer.

In this Be-Kuwa magazine, I happened to have a chance to write and submit an article through Mr. Yasuhiko Kasahara. He read my article in Scarabs #74, where I discussed about beetle rearing trends in South Korea, and he was interested to have it in the Be-Kuwa as well. I accepted the request as it is such a great opportunity. Mr. Kasahara gave me more than enough time to work on this. We discussed and worked together for about 7 to 8 months until the date of publish. I got a lot of help from my colleagues back in South Korea. They provided me multiple images to be used in Be-Kuwa, and some of them also helped me looking for the detailed information, such as history of beetle rearing.

The title of the article is: 知られざる世界の昆虫事情 第 9 回 大韓民国編 (pronounced as Shirarezaru-Sekkai-no-konchuu-jijyo-daikyukai-daikanminkokuhen), meaning [Unknwon World of Insects, the 9th: Republic of Korea]. As it is a series work of Mr. Kasahara with many authors all over the world, an appropriate title was already there. The issue has finally published and printed out in mid-October, and I just received a copy of magazine from Mr. Kasahara today. I really appreciate him for giving me a such a great opportunity and I hope I can write another article with him in the near future. Below is some images of scanned magazine cover and article cover.

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Unfortunately, Be-Kuwa is not officially being sold in the U.S. (as there is no seller), however, I saw some eBay sellers located in Japan send out the magazine overseas. Be-Kuwa is quite a popular magazine even in the Japan, so you might not be able to obtain a new copy for past issues. If there is any species issue you would like to make a purchase, you might have to be hurry to do so.

Kim, J. (2016). 知られざる世界の昆虫事情 第 9 回 大韓民国編 [The Unknown World of Insects, the 9th: Republic of Korea]. Be-Kuwa, 61: 98-102.

*This post is cross-posted in Korean language at: http://bgjkim.blog.me/220852273364

4 November 2016 Updates:
As I found couple of different information in the printed article, I was displeased as I never heard a prior notice about it. According to Mr. Kasahara, who I worked with, upon the editor’s request(s), couple of Latin Names are changed based on Japanese taxonomic systems as readers are mostly Japanese, and referenced the [The Lucanid Beetles of the World] published by Mushi-Sha. Following is changes made by editor(s). I’ll update as things are found, if this ever matters to you, refer to these:

[Original] → [How it changed to]

3 November 2016 (1)
Lucanus dybowskyi dybowskyiLucanus maculifemoratus dybowskyi
Trypoxylus dichotomus dichotomus→ 
Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis

3 November 2016 (2)
None of references I mentioned in my original manuscript has been included in the article at all, but it can be due to the format of the article being an ‘interview.’ No discussion made with editor(s) over this matter.

7 November 2016
Mr. Kasahara accepted my request to put a line on the earliest possible issue that some Latin Names has been changed by editors for the better understanding of Japanese readers as there are different taxonomic viewpoint/system in Japan and South Korea.

24 January 2017
On the issue 62, at the last paragraph of the ‘The Unknown World of Insects,’mentions of the corrections and why the information has been changed in the article from the author’s original article as follows: