Construction of Light Trap Bulb Fixture using PVC Pipes

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General morphology of male of the Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth, 1803) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Oiketicinae)

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth, 1803) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Oiketicinae)

The bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, is native species to the United States and is generally found in central and eastern states. Bagworms feed on the foliage of a wide variety of trees and shrubs, but are mostly fed and found on the juniper plant. T. ephemeraeformis (Haworth) is one of common species of two genera under the subfamily Oiketicinae of family Psychidae.

Following link is post about general morphology of the cocoon and the female:
https://junsukkim.wordpress.com/2015/09/20/thyridopteryx-ephemeraeformis-haworth-1803-lepidoptera-psychidae-oiketicinae/

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY OF CASE
_DSC6595_2_DSC6598_2_DSC6613As mentioned in the previous post regarding the cocoons and the female, male and female cocoons look same until the emergence. Male cocoon has exuvia projected out of the cocoon, showing it is empty. Live cases are thick while dead or empty cases are usually shrunken in size.

GENERAL APPEARANCE OF MALES
Males are similar to the other moth species except they lack scale on their wings. However, they are very hairy on its body, and hair easily detached when touched.

dsc01270All the dead males had its aedeagus projected out of its abdomen, however, this is not the case for the alive specimens. It can easily projected out by pinching the abdomen.

ECOLOGY OF MALES
Males are known to emerge a month ahead of females, take some time to be matured, and fly around the female cases upon their (females) emergence during the day until the early evening.

NOTES ON SPREADING/INCREASE OF POPULATED AREAS
This species is known to be a great pest on ornamental trees like juniper. However, as females are flightless, I doubt they can spread out naturally to previously uninfected areas. I only assume humans are involved in their spreading by accidentally planting infected trees in the new habitat.

Created on 8 September 2016.
Updated on 6 September 2017.

Notes on Megalodacne fasciata (Fabricius, 1777) (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Erotylinae)

Notes on Megalodacne fasciata (Fabricius, 1777) (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Erotylinae)

Megalodacne fasciata (Fabricius, 1777)
Ips fasciata Fabricius, 1777 (original description).
Fig1

INTRO
The family Erotylidae in the North America consists of 60 species in 2 subfamilies with 11 tribes. The subfamily Erotylinae occurs on fungi or fungus-rotted woods. The larvae of this group are covered with lon scoli and graze the surface of fungi. (Arnett et al. 2002; Bartlett 2004). The species Megalodacne fasicata that is studied is found on Ganoderma species of polypore mushrooms on oak tree (Quercus sp.).

LIFE HISTORY
Fig2DSC07198Both adults and larvae can be found on the Ganoderma species of mushroom.

NOTES
Larvae seems to be living inside the mushroom, however, sometimes get out of it when the environment is too wet.
_DSC6660

Megalodacne fasciata (Fabricius, 1777)
lateral and anterolateral view

It was interesting that alive adults were raising their antennae straight up. Most of the beetles species I’ve been collecting were stretching forward.

REFERENCES
Bartlett, A. 2004. Family Erotylidae – Pleasing Fungus Beetles, Taxonomy [Internet]. Iowa State University Entomology. Retrieved on Octoebr 25, 2015 from: http://bugguide.net/node/view/149/tree.
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M.C. Thomas, P.E. Skelly, and J.H. Frank. 2002. American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea, Volume 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 880 pp.

Updated on 16 December 2016.

A Rearing Guide to the Dynastes grantii Horn, 1870 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

A Rearing Guide to the Dynastes grantii Horn, 1870 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Dynastes grantii Horn, 1870
Pair, Dorsal and Lateral View_Final
INTRO
Western Hercules Beetles are found in western US states of Arizona and adjacent states. It is white or nearly white colored overall with dark spots over the elytra and pronotum. It is one of the largest beetle species in the US.

LIFE CYCLE
Eggs, L1, L2, L3, Pupae, then Adult. Egg to adult cycle takes 12 months to 15 months depending on rearing environment.

REPRODUCTION
Reproduction of Western Hercules Beetles are very easy. A pair of a male and a female or trio of a male with two females in a rearing container is recommended. Firstly, obtain a large plastic container for the rearing purpose, that is at least 20-30 cm deep with an area of around 15 X 20-30 cm. Pour in pre-moisturized substrate with large pieces or using an organic potting mix from garden store to fill up the rearing container up to 15 to 25cm, depending the depth of the container. Leaving about 5 to 7 cm at top is fine, since they do not need aerial spaces that much for their activity, unless you want them to fly around freely (which may injure them, since the container has space limitation). Feed insect jelly or overripen fruits such as bananas. Place male over female to mate them. They usually mate right away if collected outdoor, or may need some time if larvae were captivated to become fully to adulthood. After witnessing two to three times of mate, take the male out of the container to avoid any unnecessary stresses to females.

EGG CARE
Caring eggs are quite important to rear and breed the Western Hercules Beetles, as the species spends a lot more time as an egg than any other species under a subfamily Dynastinae. Egg may take from two to three weeks up to three full months depending on its rearing environment. In a good humid environment, their time spending as an egg is quite shorter than exposed and dried conditions. Since they take time to hatch, it is better to keep the eggs in the container as laid itself, and just moving the female to other prepared rearing container is a lot easier and safer to keep the eggs all hatched in later time. Therefore, using a sterilized substrate or an organic potting mix is very important. It is easy to sterilize as you only have to moisturize it and microwave it for four to five minutes is all you need (be careful with microwave as it can burn the substrate or may cause malfunction to the microwave). Cool down the substrate, and keep the eggs in the substrate. After one to two weeks moving a female to other container, you can open up the first container to find eggs and larvae. If they are still in egg, you can replace them in a sterilized substrate in a small container so you can use the rearing container be prepared for the next round after the second container.

LARVAL CARE
There isn’t much difference from other species to taking care of the larvae. All they do is feed on substrate, so only thing you need is to keep the larvae feed on a good substrate, and make sure there isn’t any other pests. They may take up to 12 months or more to pupate and emerge out.

REFERENCES
Horn, G.H. 1870. Contributions to the coleopterology of the United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 3: 69-97.
Moore, M.R. 2006. Dynastes grantii Horn, 1870. Retrieved October 19, 2015, from: http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Scarabaeoidea/
Scarabaeidae/Dynastinae/Dynastinae-Tribes/Dynastini/Dynastes/D-granti/
D_granti.html.

General morphology of cocoon and female of the Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth, 1803) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Oiketicinae)

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth, 1803) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Oiketicinae)

The bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, is native species to the United States and is generally found in central and eastern states. Bagworms feed on the foliage of a wide variety of trees and shrubs, but are mostly fed and found on the juniper plant. T. ephemeraeformis (Haworth) is one of common species of two genera under the subfamily Oiketicinae of family Psychidae.

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY OF CASE
_DSC1302_2As bagworm moth caterpillars hatch, they release streamer of silk to establish new infestations on nearby trees and spin tiny protective cases around themselves constructed with a silk and foliage. There are no difference between male and female cases unless emerged. When males emerge, their exuviae are projected out of the case as images below:
_DSC6595_2 _DSC6598_2 With this specimen, I was able to figure out their heads are downwarded in the case.
Image below is a case which found out to be of female:_DSC6614_2Its appearance does not have any difference compares to the male case. This particular specimen had different foliage attached on one case. Assuming there was a tree right by the host plant, the foliage fallen from that tree is used as the case is constructed.
_DSC6613Picture above is inner side of the male case shown above. Inner wall is very soft, and silk is tangled entirely on pupa to hold it.

GENERAL APPEARANCE OF FEMALES
Females of this family are known to be wingless and caterpillar-like. However, that doesn’t mean they look same as the caterpillar stage. They are wingless and legless.
_DSC1217Lateral View of Adult Female. Head is on left, and little part exposed on the right seems to be an ovipositor, based on eggs being extracted from that part on different female specimens.
DSC06749A close up of ovipositor of different female specimen.
*Females are known to become an oothecae itself, instead of laying eggs out of their body, but based on the observation I had, females can lay eggs out of their body.

Created on 20 September 2015.
1st Update on 21 September 2015.
2nd Update on 16 October 2015.
3rd Update on 8 September 2016. – general grammar/wordings and format