Phanaeus vindex Macleay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

Phanaeus vindex Macleay, 1819
Phanaeus vindex Macleay, 1819 (original combination).

Phanaeus vindex Macleay 1819 - MalePhanaeus vindex Macleay 1819 - Female



Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771)
Scarabaeus claviger Linnaeus, 1771 (original combination).
Scarabaeus hastatus Fabricius, 1781 (synonym).
Scarabaeus subgrundator Voet, 1806 (synonym).
Golofa puncticollis Thomson, 1860 (synonym).


Description: Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus) is a type species of genus Golofa, occurring in wide ranges including French Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. G. clavigera clavigera is very common among the Golofa species. Its biology has not yet been studied. Identification information can be found in Cespesdes and Ratcliffe (2010), Endrödi (1985), and Hwang (2011).


Cespesdes, A. A. and B. C. Ratcliffe. 2010. Golofa clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) in Bolivia: a new country record (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Ecologia en Bolivia 45(1): 73–76.

Endrödi, S. 1977. Monographie der Dynastinae (Coleoptera) 6. Tribus: Dynastini. II. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 23: 37-86.

Hwang, S.-M.-R. 2011. The Dynastini of the World (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Nature and Ecology (Academic Series), Volume 4. Seoul, South Korea. 368 pp.

Kim, J. 2016. Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles-Scarabaeidae-Dynastinae-Dynastini-Golofa. (URL: In: B.C. Ratcliffe and M.L. Jameson (eds.), Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles (URL:

Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte, 1856) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte, 1856)
Ligyrus rugiceps LeConte, 1856 (original combination).
Euetheola humilis Burmeister, 1847 (synonym).

Euetheola rugiceps.jpg

Comment: E. rugiceps (LeConte) is known to occur southeastern US and keep spreading upward to midwest states. I personally collected couple of specimens in southern Nebraska, 2014. Very common in down south. They are mostly active in between May-June to August. I have experience of collecting more than a hundred specimen in a single night with a small battery-operated blacklight within an hour. This species do not show a sexual dimorphism, therefore, genitalia must be extracted to determine the sex. In my personal collections from Shreveport, LA and Alexandria, LA, there were whole lot more females than males collected.

*Image of aedeagus will be updated in near future.

Prosopocoilus astacoides blanchardi (Parry, 1873) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae)

Prosopocoilus astacoides blanchardi (Parry, 1873)
Metopodontus blanchardi Parry, 1873 (original combination).
Prosopocoilus blanchardi Nomura and Lee, 1922 (synonym).

Prosopocoilus astacoides blanchardi_1600.jpg

Description: This species is known to occur in Mongolia, Taiwan, and South Korea (only in Jeju Island). (Kim and Kim, 2014).

Remarks: In South Korea, this species is listed under the Endangered Wild Species – Grade II on May 31, 2012 by the Ministry of Environment. (Kim and Kim, 2014).

Kim, J.-I. and S.I. Kim. (2014). Insect Fauna of Korea: Lucanidae and Passalidae, Volume 12, Number 15. National Institute of Biological Researches, Ministry of Environment, Incheon.

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