B.S. Thesis

Output of my B.S. thesis has recently uploaded to the webpage of University of Nebraska State Museum-Research Division of Entomology. Link below is for the research output at UNSM webpage. Click each listed species in the bottom page to access detailed information.

For the output of research, http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Scarabaeoidea/Scarabaeidae/
Dynastinae/Dynastinae-Tribes/Dynastini/Gol
ofa/Golofa.html

Citation Information for output above:
Kim, J. (2016). Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles-Scarabaeidae-Dynastinae-Dynastini-Golofa. (URL:
http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Scarabaeoidea/Scarabaeidae/Dynastinae/DynastinaeTribes/
Dynastini/Golofa/Golofa.html). In: B.C. Ratcliffe and M.L. Jameson (eds.), GenericGuide to New World Scarab Beetles (URL: http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Guideintroduction/Guideintro.html).

Below is part of B.S. Thesis, submitted to the department.


A Review and Identification Guide to the Genus Golofa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

Junsuk Kim

B.S. Thesis

Insect Science
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

December 2015

I. Introduction
The family Scarabaeidae is a large, diverse, cosmopolitan group of beetles that contains about 30,000 described species with about 200 new species are being found and described each year. The scarab subfamily Dynastinae is distributed almost everywhere except the Polar Regions. The tribe Dynastini has species that are the largest and heaviest of all insects. Males of many species have enlarged horns on the head and thorax that are usually used as armament for combat, while females are unarmed. The Neotropical genus Golofa contains about 30 species, depending on which authority one uses, found from central Mexico to northern Argentina and Chile. (Hwang 2011; Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Adult males of most of the Central American species may be recognized by their brownish yellow to dark reddish brown color (three species are black or nearly so); presence of a short to long, upright, slender head horn; presence of a short to long, erect or obliquely oriented pronotal horn or prominent tubercle; and mandibles either entire or notched at the apex. Golofa females are dark yellowish brown to more commonly black, and they lack armature. (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Golofa females may be easily confused with the females of some Heterogomphus species, especially H. mniszechi Thomson (Central America), H. schoenherri Burmeister (South America), and H. flohri Kolbe, all of which are about the same size and color and have densely punctate elytra. In Golofa females, the basal segment of the protarsus is subequal to or longer than the apical spur of the protibial. Heterogomphus females, the basal segment of the protarsus is distinctly shorter than the apical sput of the protibial. In addition, while the apex of the prosternal process may have long, dense setae in both genera, the shaft of the process is normally densely setose in Golofaspecies and glabrous or sparsely setose in Heterogomphus species. (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

The diagnostic features used to identify Golofa species are the form of the male genitalia, form of the head and pronotal horns, form of the mandibles, color and surface texturing of the elytra, presence or absence of dorsal setae, armature of the protibiae, form of the stridulatory bands on the prepygidium, and where they occur. However, their morphology can vary between major and minor males, and some females can often not be identified unless collected with males. Even after revisions by three people (Lachaume, Dechambre, and Endrödi), species in the genus are still remained difficult to identify.

This is a literature review, extracting information out of published literature which is not hypotheses based experiment. Therefore three informative questions are answered in this project: (1) Where do the species of Golofa occur? (2) What characters are used to identify and separate the species? (3) Is there information about the biologyof the species?

A synopsis of all the species are provided to enable the identification of the species and convey the information of where they occur with the illustration of each species in high resolution images. This will convey information on a charismatic group of beetles to a diverse audience of scientists, students, museum collections managers, and natural resource managers in countries where these beetles occur. More than 30 literature reviewed to conduct this project to collect and accumulate into one taxonomic description of the genus Golofa.

The final product will be an E-Publication on a website hosted by the University of Nebraska State Museum’s Division of Entomology (http://museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/index.htm).


II. Methods
Scientific literature has been reviewed and referred to gather data. Key characteristics are determined to characterize each species with use of high resolution images to illustrate the species on the web page product. The literature containing the original descriptions for each species (some dating back to 1758) has been thoroughly referenced as well as the most recent revisions of Golofa.

High resolution images are provided by multiple researchers and institutions including Brett C. Ratcliffe (University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, NE, USA); Seul-Ma-Ro Hwang (Seoul, South Korea) from his book, The Dynastini of the World; Paschoal C. Grossi (Brazil); Everardo J. Grossi (Brazil); Oxford University Museum of Natural History (Oxford, U.K.); Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin, Germany); Antoine Mantilleri of Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France).


III. Result
After revisions by three people, the identification of species in genus still remains difficult as their morphology can vary between major and minor males, and females areoften not identified unless collected with males. The output of the study is provided as form of profiles with texts and images.


Genus Golofa Hope, 1837 – Catalog
Golofa aegeon (Drury, 1773)
Scarabaeus aegeon Drury, 1773 (original combination).
Golofa humboldti Erichson, 1847 (synonym).

Golofa antiqua Arrow, 1911
Golofa antiqua Arrow, 1911 (original combination).

Golofa argentina Arrow, 1911
Golofa argentina Arrow, 1911 (original combination).

Golofa clavigera clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771)
Scarabaeus claviger Linnaeus, 1771 (original combination).
Scarabaeus hastatus Fabricius, 1781 (synonym).
Scarabaeus subgrundator Voet, 1806 (synonym).
Golofa puncticollis Thomson, 1860 (synonym) .

Golofa clavigera guildinii (Hope, 1837)
Golofa guildinii Hope, 1837 (original combination).

Golofa cochlearis Ohaus, 1910
Golofa cochlearis Ohaus, 1910 (original combination).
Golofa rouxi Bruch, 1911 (synonym).

Golofa costaricensis Bates, 1888
Golofa costaricensis Bates, 1888 (original combination).

Golofa eacus Burmeister, 1847
Golofa eacus Burmeister, 1847 (original combination).
Golofa pelops Burmeister, 1847 (synonym).
Golofa bifidus Voirin, 1994 (synonym).

Golofa gaujoni Lachaume, 1985
Golofa gaujoni Lachaume, 1985 (original combination).

Golofa globulicornis Dechambre, 1975
Golofa globulicornis Dechambre, 1975 (original combination).

Golofa henrypitieri Arnaud et Joly, 2006
Golofa henrypitieri Arnaud et Joly, 2006 (original combination).

Golofa hirsuta Ratcliffe, 2003
Golofa hirsuta Ratcliffe, 2003 (original combination).

Golofa imbellis Bates, 1888
Golofa imbellis Bates, 1888 (original combination).

Golofa incas Hope, 1837
Golofa incas Hope, 1837 (original combination).
Golofa championi Bates, 1888 (synonym).

Golofa inermis Thomson, 1859
Golofa inermis Thomson, 1859 (original combination).

Golofa minuta Sternberg, 1910
Golofa minuta Sternberg, 1910 (original combination).

Golofa obliquicornis Dechambre, 1975
Golofa obliquicornis Dechambre, 1975 (original combination).

Golofa paradoxa Dechambre, 1975
Golofa paradoxa Dechambre, 1975 (original combination).

Golofa pelagon Burmeister, 1847
Golofa pelagon Burmeister, 1847 (original combination).
Golofa nigricollis Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa rubiginosa Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa scutellaris Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa ruficollis Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa denticornis Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa dichotoma Suter, 1952 (synonym).
Golofa ater Suter, 1952 (synonym).

Golofa pizarro Hope, 1837
Golofa pizarro Hope, 1837 (original combination).
Golofa hastata Burmeister, 1847 (synonym).
Golofa imperialis Thomson, 1858 (synonym).
Golofa sallei Thomson, 1860 (synonym).
Golofa clavicornis Thomson, 1860 (synonym).
Golofa castaneus Voirin, 1994 (synonym).
Golofa tricolor Voirin, 1994 (synonym).

Golofa porteri Hope, 1837
Golofa porteri Hope, 1837 (original combination).
Scarabaeus dejeani Buquet, 1837 (synonym).
Golofa petiveri Erichson, 1838 (synonym).
Asserador hewitsoni Maunders, 1852 (synonym).

Golofa pusilla Arrow, 1911
Golofa pusilla Arrow, 1911 (original combination).

Golofa solisi Ratcliffe, 2003
Golofa solisi Ratcliffe, 2003 (original combination).

Golofa spatha Dechambre, 1989
Golofa spatha Dechambre, 1989 (original combination).

Golofa tepaneneca Morón, 1995
Golofa tepaneneca Morón, 1995 (original combination).

Golofa tersander (Burmeister, 1847)
Podischnus tersander Burmeister, 1847 (original combination).
Mixigenus leander Thomson, 1859 (synonym).
Mixigenus barbicornis Fairmaire, 1878 (synonym).
Golofa dohrni Nonfried, 1890 (synonym).

Golofa testudinaria (Prell, 1934)
Mixigenus testudinarius Prell, 1934 (original combination).

Golofa unicolor (Bates, 1891)
Praogolofa unicolor Bates, 1891 (original combination).
Golofa lata Sternberg, 1910 (synonym).

Golofa wagneri Abadie, 2007
Golofa wagneri Abadie, 2007 (original combination).

Golofa xiximeca Morón, 1995
Golofa xiximeca Morón, 1995 (original combination).


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The study conducted with the great helps from my research adviser, Dr. Brett C. Ratcliffe, who has provided advises of constructing the study and references including his researches from Central America with automontage images of few species. He has helped in overall revising and polishing of wordings and constructions of the results of the work. Also, I would like to appreciate numbers of people for sharing their images for the research without hesitation to Seul-Ma-Ro Hwang (Seoul, South Korea) for sharing high quality images of most species of Golofa from his book, The Dynastini of the World, and providing a lot of advises; Paschoal C. Grossi (Brazil); Everardo J. Grossi (Brazil); Oxford University Museum of Natural History (Oxford, U.K.); Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin, Germany); Antoine Mantilleri of Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France).


REFERENCES CITED
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Arrow, G. J. 1911. Notes on the Lamellicorn beetles of the genus Golofa with descriptions of three new species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 (7): 136–141.

Bates, H. W. 1888. Pectinicornia and Lamellicornia, Family Dynastidae. In: Godman, F. D. and O. Salvin (Editors), Biologia Centrali-American. Insecta, Coleoptera. Volume 2, Part. 2: 296–342.

Bates, H. W. 1891. Coleoptera, pp. 7-39. In, Whymper, E., Supplementary Appendix to Travels Amongst the Great Andes of the Equator. John Murray, London, United Kingdom. 147 pp.

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Burmeister, H. 1847. Handbuch der Entomologie, Volume 5. T. C. F. Enslin, Berlin, Germany. 584 pp.

Cespesdes, A. A. and B. C. Ratcliffe. 2010. Golofa clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) in Bolivia: a new country record (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Ecologia en Bolivia 45(1): 73–76.

Dechambre, R. –P. 1975. Note sur diverse Megaceras et Golofa (Col. Dynastindae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.) 11: 619-630.

Dechambre, R. P. 1983. Le Genre Golofa (Col. Dynastidae). Bulletin Sci Nat 37: 1–11, plates I-II.

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